So you’ve written a beautiful piece of code, a macro that does everything it needs to do… the only thing is that, well, it takes a while to complete. Oh, it’s as efficient as it gets, you’ve put it up for peer review on Code Review Stack Exchange, and the reviewers helped you optimize it. You need a way to report progress to your users.
There are several possible solutions.
If the macro is written in such a way that the user could very well continue using Excel while the code is running, then why disturb their workflow – simply updating the application’s status bar is definitely the best way to do it.
You could use a small procedure to do it:
Public Sub UpdateStatus(Optional ByVal msg As String = vbNullString) Dim isUpdating As Boolean isUpdating = Application.ScreenUpdating 'we need ScreenUpdating toggled on to do this: If Not isUpdating Then Application.ScreenUpdating = True 'if msg is empty, status goes to "Ready" Application.StatusBar = msg 'make sure the update gets displayed (we might be in a tight loop) DoEvents 'if ScreenUpdating was off, toggle it back off: Application.ScreenUpdating = isUpdating End Sub
It’s critical to understand that the user can change the
ActiveSheet at any time, so if your long-running macro involves code that implicitly (or explicitly) refers to the active worksheet, you’ll run into problems. Rubberduck has an inspection that specifically locates these implicit references though, so you’ll do fine.
Modeless Progress Indicator
A commonly blogged-about solution is to display a modeless UserForm and update it from the worker code. I dislike this solution, for several reasons:
- The user is free to interact with the workbook and change the
ActiveSheetat any time, but the progress is reported in an invasive dialog that the user needs to drag around to move out of the way as they navigate the worksheets.
- It pollutes the worker code with form member calls; the worker code decides when to display and when to hide and destroy the form.
- It feels like a work-around: we’d like a modal UserForm, but we don’t know how to make that work nicely.
“Smart UI” Modal Progress Indicator
If we only care to make it work yesterday, a “Smart UI” works: we get a modal dialog, so the user can’t use the workbook while we’re modifying it. What’s the problem then?
The form is running the show – the “worker” code needs to be in the code-behind, or invoked from it. That is the problem: if you want to reuse that code, in another project, you need to carefully scrap the worker code. If you want to reuse that code in the same project, you’re out of luck – either you duplicate the “indicator” code and reimplement the other “worker” code in another form’s code-behind, or the form now has “modes” and some conditional logic determines which worker code will get to run: you can imagine how well that scales if you have a project that needs a progress indicator for 20 features.
“Smart UI” can’t be good either. So, what’s the real solution then?
A Reusable Progress Indicator
We want a modal indicator (so that the user can’t interfere with our modifications), but one that doesn’t run the show: we want the UserForm to be responsible for nothing more than keeping its indicator representative of the current progress.
This solution is based on a piece of code I posted on Code Review back in 2015; you can find the original post here. This version is better though, be it only because of how it deals with cancellation.
The solution is implemented across two components: a form, and a class module.
Nothing really fancy here. The form is named
ProgressView. There’s a
ProgressLabel, a 228×24
DecorativeFrame, and inside that
Frame control, a
ProgressBar label using the Highlight color from the System palette. Here’s the complete code-behind:
Option Explicit Private Const PROGRESSBAR_MAXWIDTH As Integer = 224 Public Event Activated() Public Event Cancelled() Private Sub UserForm_Activate() ProgressBar.Width = 0 RaiseEvent Activated End Sub Public Sub Update(ByVal percentValue As Single, Optional ByVal labelValue As String, Optional ByVal captionValue As String) If labelValue vbNullString Then ProgressLabel.Caption = labelValue If captionValue vbNullString Then Me.Caption = captionValue ProgressBar.Width = percentValue * PROGRESSBAR_MAXWIDTH DoEvents End Sub Private Sub UserForm_QueryClose(Cancel As Integer, CloseMode As Integer) If CloseMode = VbQueryClose.vbFormControlMenu Then Cancel = True RaiseEvent Cancelled End If End Sub
Clearly this isn’t a Smart UI: the form doesn’t even have a concept of “worker code”, it’s blissfully unaware of what it’s being used for. In fact, on its own, it’s pretty useless. Modally showing the default instance of this form leaves you with only the VBE’s “Stop” button to close it, because its
QueryClose handler is actively preventing the user from “x-ing out” of it. Obviously that form is rather useless on its own – it’s not responsible for anything beyond updating itself and notifying the
ProgressIndicator when it’s ready to start reporting progress – or when the user means to cancel the long-running operation.
This is the class that the client code will be using. A
PredeclaredId attribute gives it a default instance, which is used to expose a factory method.
Here’s the full code – walkthrough follows:
Option Explicit Private Declare PtrSafe Sub Sleep Lib "kernel32" (ByVal dwMilliseconds As Long) Private Const DEFAULT_CAPTION As String = "Progress" Private Const DEFAULT_LABEL As String = "Please wait..." Private Const ERR_NOT_INITIALIZED As String = "ProgressIndicator is not initialized." Private Const ERR_PROC_NOT_FOUND As String = "Specified macro or object member was not found." Private Const ERR_INVALID_OPERATION As String = "Worker procedure cannot be cancelled by assigning to this property." Private Const VBERR_MEMBER_NOT_FOUND As Long = 438 Public Enum ProgressIndicatorError Error_NotInitialized = vbObjectError + 1001 Error_ProcedureNotFound Error_InvalidOperation End Enum Private Type TProgressIndicator procedure As String instance As Object sleepDelay As Long canCancel As Boolean cancelling As Boolean currentProgressValue As Double End Type Private this As TProgressIndicator Private WithEvents view As ProgressView Private Sub Class_Initialize() Set view = New ProgressView view.Caption = DEFAULT_CAPTION view.ProgressLabel = DEFAULT_LABEL End Sub Private Sub Class_Terminate() Set view = Nothing Set this.instance = Nothing End Sub Private Function QualifyMacroName(ByVal book As Workbook, ByVal procedure As String) As String QualifyMacroName = "'" & book.FullName & "'!" & procedure End Function Public Function Create(ByVal procedure As String, Optional instance As Object = Nothing, Optional ByVal initialLabelValue As String, Optional ByVal initialCaptionValue As String, Optional ByVal completedSleepMilliseconds As Long = 1000, Optional canCancel As Boolean = False) As ProgressIndicator Dim result As ProgressIndicator Set result = New ProgressIndicator result.Cancellable = canCancel result.SleepMilliseconds = completedSleepMilliseconds If Not instance Is Nothing Then Set result.OwnerInstance = instance ElseIf InStr(procedure, "'!") = 0 Then procedure = QualifyMacroName(Application.ActiveWorkbook, procedure) End If result.ProcedureName = procedure If initialLabelValue vbNullString Then result.ProgressView.ProgressLabel = initialLabelValue If initialCaptionValue vbNullString Then result.ProgressView.Caption = initialCaptionValue Set Create = result End Function Friend Property Get ProgressView() As ProgressView Set ProgressView = view End Property Friend Property Get ProcedureName() As String ProcedureName = this.procedure End Property Friend Property Let ProcedureName(ByVal value As String) this.procedure = value End Property Friend Property Get OwnerInstance() As Object Set OwnerInstance = this.instance End Property Friend Property Set OwnerInstance(ByVal value As Object) Set this.instance = value End Property Friend Property Get SleepMilliseconds() As Long SleepMilliseconds = this.sleepDelay End Property Friend Property Let SleepMilliseconds(ByVal value As Long) this.sleepDelay = value End Property Public Property Get CurrentProgress() As Double CurrentProgress = this.currentProgressValue End Property Public Property Get Cancellable() As Boolean Cancellable = this.canCancel End Property Friend Property Let Cancellable(ByVal value As Boolean) this.canCancel = value End Property Public Property Get IsCancelRequested() As Boolean IsCancelRequested = this.cancelling End Property Public Sub AbortCancellation() Debug.Assert this.cancelling this.cancelling = False End Sub Public Sub Execute() view.Show vbModal End Sub Public Sub Update(ByVal percentValue As Double, Optional ByVal labelValue As String, Optional ByVal captionValue As String) On Error GoTo CleanFail ThrowIfNotInitialized ValidatePercentValue percentValue this.currentProgressValue = percentValue view.Update this.currentProgressValue, labelValue CleanExit: If percentValue = 1 Then Sleep 1000 ' pause on completion Exit Sub CleanFail: MsgBox Err.Number & vbTab & Err.Description, vbCritical, "Error" Resume CleanExit End Sub Public Sub UpdatePercent(ByVal percentValue As Double, Optional ByVal captionValue As String) ValidatePercentValue percentValue Update percentValue, Format$(percentValue, "0.0% Completed") End Sub Private Sub ValidatePercentValue(ByRef percentValue As Double) If percentValue > 1 Then percentValue = percentValue / 100 End Sub Private Sub ThrowIfNotInitialized() If this.procedure = vbNullString Then Err.Raise ProgressIndicatorError.Error_NotInitialized, TypeName(Me), ERR_NOT_INITIALIZED End If End Sub Private Sub view_Activated() On Error GoTo CleanFail ThrowIfNotInitialized If Not this.instance Is Nothing Then ExecuteInstanceMethod Else ExecuteMacro End If CleanExit: view.Hide Exit Sub CleanFail: MsgBox Err.Number & vbTab & Err.Description, vbCritical, "Error" Resume CleanExit End Sub Private Sub ExecuteMacro() On Error GoTo CleanFail Application.Run this.procedure, Me CleanExit: Exit Sub CleanFail: If Err.Number = VBERR_MEMBER_NOT_FOUND Then Err.Raise ProgressIndicatorError.Error_ProcedureNotFound, TypeName(Me), ERR_PROC_NOT_FOUND Else Err.Raise Err.Number, Err.Source, Err.Description, Err.HelpFile, Err.HelpContext End If Resume CleanExit End Sub Private Sub ExecuteInstanceMethod() On Error GoTo CleanFail Dim parameter As ProgressIndicator Set parameter = Me 'Me cannot be passed to CallByName directly CallByName this.instance, this.procedure, VbMethod, parameter CleanExit: Exit Sub CleanFail: If Err.Number = VBERR_MEMBER_NOT_FOUND Then Err.Raise ProgressIndicatorError.Error_ProcedureNotFound, TypeName(Me), ERR_PROC_NOT_FOUND Else Err.Raise Err.Number, Err.Source, Err.Description, Err.HelpFile, Err.HelpContext End If Resume CleanExit End Sub Private Sub view_Cancelled() If Not this.canCancel Then Exit Sub this.cancelling = True End Sub
Create method is intended to be invoked from the default instance, which means if you’re copy-pasting this code into the VBE, it won’t work. Instead, paste this header into notepad first:
VERSION 1.0 CLASS BEGIN MultiUse = -1 'True END Attribute VB_Name = "ProgressIndicator" Attribute VB_GlobalNameSpace = False Attribute VB_Creatable = False Attribute VB_PredeclaredId = True Attribute VB_Exposed = True
Then paste the actual code underneath, save as
ProgressIndicator.cls, and import the class module into the VBE. Note the
VB_Exposed attribute: this makes the class usable in other VBA projects, so you could have this progress indicator solution in, say, an Excel add-in, and have “client” VBA projects that reference it.
Friend members won’t be accessible from external code.
Newing up the
ProgressView directly in the
Class_Initialize handler: this makes it tightly coupled with the
ProgressIndicator. A better solution might have been to inject some
IProgressView interface through the
Create method, but then this would have required gymnastics to correctly expose the
Cancelled view events, because events can’t simply be exposed as interface members – I’ll cover that in a future article, but the benefit of that would be loose coupling and enhanced testability: one could inject some
MockProgressView implementation (just some class / not a form!), and just like that, the worker code could be unit tested without bringing up any form – but then again, that’s a bit beyond the scope of this article, and I’m drifting.
Create method takes the name of a
procedure, and uses it to set the
ProcedureName property: this procedure name can be any
Public Sub that takes a
ProgressIndicator parameter. If it’s in a standard module, nothing else is needed. If it’s in a class module, the
instance parameter needs to be specified so that we can later invoke the worker code off an instance of that class. The other parameters optionally configure the initial caption and label on the form (that’s not exactly how I’d write it today, but give me a break, that code is from 2015). If the worker code supports cancellation, the
canCancelparameter should be supplied.
The next interesting member is the
Execute method, which displays the modal form. Doing that soon triggers the
Activated event, which we handle by first validating that we have a
procedure to invoke, and then we either
ExecuteInstanceMethod (given an
ExecuteMacro – then we
Hide the view and we’re done.
Application.Run to invoke the
CallByName to invoke the member on the
instance. In both cases,
Me is passed to the invoked procedure as a parameter, and this is where the fun part begins.
The worker code is responsible for doing the work, and uses its
ProgressIndicator parameter to
Update the progress indicator as it goes, and periodically check if the user wants to cancel; the
AbortCancellation method can be used to, well, cancel the cancellation, if that’s needed.
Client & Worker Code
The client code is responsible for registering the worker procedure, and executing it through the
ProgressIndicator instance, for example like this:
Public Sub DoSomething() With ProgressIndicator.Create("DoWork", canCancel:=True) .Execute End With End Sub
The above code registers the
DoWork worker procedure, and executes it.
DoWork could be any
Public Sub in a standard module (.bas), taking a
Public Sub DoWork(ByVal progress As ProgressIndicator) Dim i As Long For i = 1 To 10000 If ShouldCancel(progress) Then 'here more complex worker code could rollback & cleanup Exit Sub End If ActiveSheet.Cells(1, 1) = i progress.Update i / 10000 Next End Sub Private Function ShouldCancel(ByVal progress As ProgressIndicator) As Boolean If progress.IsCancelRequested Then If MsgBox("Cancel this operation?", vbYesNo) = vbYes Then ShouldCancel = True Else progress.AbortCancellation End If End If End Function
Create method can also register a method defined in a class module, given an instance of that class – again as long as it’s a
Public Sub taking a
Public Sub DoSomething() Dim foo As SomeClass Set foo = New SomeClass With ProgressIndicator.Create("DoWork", foo) .Execute End With End Sub
In order to use this
ProgressIndicator solution as an Excel add-in, I would recommend renaming the VBA project (say,
ReusableProgress), otherwise referencing a project named “VBAProject” from a project named “VBAProject” will surely get confusing 🙂
Note that this solution could easily be adapted to work in any VBA host application, by removing the “standard module” support and only invoking the worker code in a class module, with
By using a reusable progress indicator like this, you never need to reimplement it ever again: you do it once, and then you can use it in 200 places across 100 projects if you like: not a single line of code in the
ProgressView classes needs to change – all you need to write is your worker code, and all the worker code needs to worry about is, well, its job.
Don’t hesitate to comment and suggest further improvements, suggestions are welcome – questions, too.
I’ve bundled the code in this article into a Microsoft Excel add-in that I uploaded to dropbox (Progress.xlam).